Page Edited By: Kyle Daines

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Introduction

The ecozone that I have been given to research is the Atlantic Maritime. The Atlantic Maritime is mostly consisting of land that is close to or on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. In this ecozone are Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, P.E.I., and south-eastern Quebec. Most of the land is hilly with poor soil because it a lot of the inland has the Appalachians running through it. The land on the coast is much more suitable for people to live because of the richer soil and the flatter land.
­­­Landforms, Rocks, and Minerals
A long time ago, when Pangaea originally broke apart and started to separate, the lands started to collide and fold the land creating the Appalachian Mountains. This all happened about 270 million years ago. The continental plate that collided with ours was the western part of what is today the plate that is part of Africa. When the two plates crashed, so much heat and pressure was created that when the rock re-crystallized, metamorphic rocks were formed. After the initial incident, the plates continued to collide, fold, and bend upwards forming the whole of what are today the Appalachians. When Pangaea was breaking apart, it also thinned the crust in the area around the Atlantic Maritime region and caused some volcanic activity to occur. Some of the activity was very minor while some of it was possibly equal to that of Mt. St. Helens. A lot of the sedimentary rock from underneath the Appalachians was lifted and there is a large abundance of coal surrounding the mountains. The Volcanic activity and some faulting in the area brought up and caused the formation of iron and zinc. A lot of the mining in Nova Scotia is for coal which is about all that is mined in the Atlantic Maritime. Coal mining has been something the people of Nova Scotia have been doing for around 300 years.
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Climate
The climate in the Atlantic Maritime is influenced greatly by the air masses coming off of the Atlantic Ocean. This produces a moderating in temperature with moderately cool winters and warm summers. In the winter the temperature averages about -4 degrees Celsius and in the summer the temperature averages about 17 degrees Celsius. With an air mass coming from the ocean, there is a large amount of moisture in the air. The average precipitation per year is 1000-1400 mm. However the bulk of the precipitation is in the coastal areas. There is about 600mm more precipitation on the coast then inland. Out of anywhere in Canada the Maritimes have the most storms. The Maritimes have very successful growing seasons because of the amount of rainfall. The growing season lasts about 180-210 days. The climate changes greatly between the coast and inland parts of the Atlantic Maritime. Inland is cold and wet. The coastal lowlands are much more accessible with a much milder climate. The type of precipitation that they get is orographic. The mountains cause the air masses to rise and then the moisture forms as clouds. The precipitation comes down on the towns on the coast which is the best farming land. Climograph_of_nova_scotia.jpg
Vegetation, Agriculture, Soil, and Forestry
Because of the constant rainfall and nutritious soil on the coast, there is very successful farming and forestry in the Atlantic Maritime. In P.E.I., 4.5 of the population live on farms. The most largely grown food on P.E.I. is obviously potatoes. In 2008, there was a total of 89,000 acres farmed for potatoes. Agriculture elsewhere in the region is limited to areas that have good soil. The areas with good soil have lots of humus in the soil and humus is very good at containing moisture. Between the abundance of water and nutrients in the soil, the coastal areas of the Atlantic Maritime are some of the best lands for growing in Canada. The inland is not quite as good for farming because the lack of humus just creates a leaching effect taking away the nutrients instead. There are all sorts of trees in the Atlantic Maritime region of both coniferous (white pine, red spruce, red pine), and deciduous (sugar maple, red oak, yellow birch). Some of the forests are very large but almost none from the first generation are still alive today. Most of the trees in the Atlantic Maritime have been harvested at least once and the area has been replanted to prepare for the future.
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Fun Facts
· The population density is 1321.60 people/km2 with a total population of 2,537,685 people
· This region covers only 2% of Canada’s total area
· Another one of the major businesses in the area is fishing. It was one of the highest incomes for the Maritimes until overfishing caused a stock crash.
· Most of the population lives in the coastal lowlands where everything is more easily accessible, food is easier to grow, and boats can fish the waters.
· The many different aquatic mammals found in the waters off the coast are extremely popular among tourists. They include animals such as the harbour seal, gray seal, hooded seal, harp seal, orca, northern bottlenosed whale, and blue whale.
- Many people fish for lobsters and other crustaceans. The waters in the area are very well known for their lobster, crab, and shrimp fisheries.
- Of the 2.5 million people who live in this region, half of them live in rural areas for farming or deforesting.


Test Questions

Q. 1. True or false: The main industry for mining in the region is in Nova Scotia where they mine for iron and zinc?
A: False, they mine for coal
Q. 2. True or false, the Atlantic Ocean creates a convectional precipitation on the coast of the Atlantic Maritime region.
A: False, the mountains cause an orographic precipitation on the cities on the coast.
Q. 3. How were the Appalachian Mountains formed? Give two points on the subject.
A: i) the Appalachians were formed by folding. ii) The other plate that collided with the North American one was the Plate underneath what is today Africa. iii) This happened about 270 million years ago.
Q. 4. In the Atlantic Maritime, why might soil inland be less fertile or suitable for growing plants? Give 2 reasons.
A: i) Inland, the soil has less humus, the lack of humus causes water to leach through the soil instead of being absorbed for nutrients. ii) The lack of humus also causes a lack of nutrition for the plants inland. iii) The coast has a milder temperature. iv) the mountains are very rocky with less good soil. v) there is more precipitation on the coast then inland.
Q. 5. What are 4 types of industry in the Atlantic Maritime region? Of these industries, give where 3 of the industries would be most common.
A: Fishing, farming, mining, tree harvesting. In Nova Scotia there are many coal mines, on P.E.I. there is a lot of potato farming and other agriculture, farming could also be best on the coast of Nova Scotia, fisheries or harbours would be all along the shores of the Atlantic Maritime ecozone, forests grow best on the coast where the soil quality is the best.